In a circular economy, there is practically no waste because raw materials and waste are re-used over and over again. The end goal is to slow down, close and narrow material and energy loops. This can be achieved through sustainable and long-lasting design, maintenance, repair, reuse, remanufacturing, refurbishing, and recycling. Think for example of repairing and upcycling clothes instead of buying new ones, refurbishing older electronic devices and using wood rests as a new resource.
The circular economy is the opposite of the linear economy, which has a 'take, make, dispose' model of production. An example of a linear model of production is the fast fashion industry.