Each year, we buy clothes, wear them and throw them away. This lineair chain of production and use, with a clear beginning and end, puts a pressure on the environment. Can we change it for the better, and move towards a circular economy? Reflow was a research project (2019 - 2022) funded by the European Commission in which 27 partners in six cities are researching how former 'waste' streams can be reused as possible new material sources. The goal is to move towards a more sustainable circular economy. 

Six cities, six residual flows

Reflow runs in six cities across Europe: Amsterdam, Paris, Berlin, Milan, Vejle and Cluj-Napoca. Each city focuses on a different resource stream: textiles, wood and packaging, housing, food, plastics and electricity. The Amsterdam Reflow pilot researches circular textile streams.

Through the city pilots, data on resource streams are mapped and visualised, governance models and processes are developed, technology that supports sustainable and scalable implementation of such processes is developed. Across the majority of these tasks, citizen engagement is part of the research approach.

The role of Waag in this project

Waag is pilot coordinator for all six city pilots, and lead of the Amsterdam textile pilot. The Amsterdam pilot partners are: Pakhuis de Zwijger, Metabolic, Municipality of Amsterdam, BMA~Techne and Waag.

What can you do yourself?

Project duration

1 Jun 2019 - 1 Jul 2022



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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 820937.